Gustavo López Herrera

Gustavo López Herrera

Descripción: 

Soy docente e investigador en los campos de Interacción Humano-Computador e ingeniería de software. En el área de Interacción Humano-Computador, mis intereses se centran en: computación ubicua, internet de las cosas y User Experience . En el área de ingeniería de software, mis intereses incluyen: mejoramiento de procesos y marcos de trabajo ágiles. Tengo una maestría en Ciencias de la Computación e Informática del Programa de Posgrado en Computación e Informática de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Además, soy Certified Scrum Master y Certified Scrum Product Owner ambas certificaciones emitidas por el Scrum Alliance.

Es estudiante: 
No

Formación académica

Universitaria:

Finalizados:

  • Maestría Académica, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.
  • Bachillerato, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.

Certificaciones: 

  • Certified Scrum Master
  • Certified Scrum Product Owner

Idiomas:

  • Español (Lengua materna)
  • Ingles (Dominio completo TOEIC: 990/990; TOEFL: 104/120)
  • Chino mandarín simplificado (Nivel básico)

Experiencia laboral

  • Docente, investigador. Feb 2012 - actualidad.
    • Proyecto de investigación: Fortalecimiento de la capacidad de desarrollo, adopción y mantenimiento de software del Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad.
    • Actividad de investigación: Apoyo a procesos de investigación y divulgación de proyectos del CITIC.
    • Proyecto de investigación: Diseño y desarrollo de interfaces no tradicionales con fines educativos y terapéuticos.
    • Proyecto de investigación: Mejoramiento de los procesos de aseguramiento de la calidad de software en una unidad de proyectos de la UCR.
    • Proyecto de investigación: Desarrollo de objetos aumentados y validación de una metodología de diseño de objetos  aumentados.
    • Proyecto de investigación: Adecuación de las prácticas básicas de aseguramiento de la calidad y mejora del proceso de  software de la unidad de desarrollo de software de la UCR.
  • Cursos impartidos
    • Temas Especiales de Teoría de la Computación: Introducción a la Investigación Aplicada, Posgrado en Computación e Informática, UCR, Mar 2017 - Jun 2017.
    • Diseño de la Interfaz Humano-Computador, Posgrado en Computación e Informática, UCR, Ago 2016 - Dic 2016.
    • Principios de Informática, Escuela de Ciencias de la Computación e Informática, UCR, Abril 2013 - Jul 2013.
  • Profesor Asistente, Julio 2009 - Diciembre 2011

Proyectos

Publicaciones

Defining `Architecture' for Software Engineering -- A Review of Terminology

Tipo de publicación: Book Chapter

Publicado en: Advances in Human Factors, Software, and Systems Engineering: Proceedings of the AHFE 2017 International Conference on Human Factors, Software, and Systems Engineering, July 17-21, 2017, The Westin Bonaventure Hotel, Los Angeles, California, USA

Catching up with Method and Process Practice: An Industry-Informed Baseline for Researchers

Descripción:

Software development methods are usually not applied by the book. Companies are under pressure to continuously deploy software products that meet market needs and stakeholders' requests. To implement efficient and effective development processes, companies utilize multiple frameworks, methods and practices, and combine these into hybrid methods. A common combination contains a rich management framework to organize and steer projects complemented with a number of smaller practices providing the development teams with tools to complete their tasks. In this paper, based on 732 data points collected through an international survey, we study the software development process use in practice. Our results show that 76.8% of the companies implement hybrid methods. Company size as well as the strategy in devising and evolving hybrid methods affect the suitability of the chosen process to reach company or project goals. Our findings show that companies that combine planned improvement programs with process evolution can increase their process' suitability by up to 5%

Tipo de publicación: Conference Paper

Publicado en: Proceedings of the 41st International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice

Teaching Scrum Using Gamification

Descripción:

Teaching Scrum is a complex task in an academic setting. However, it is even more complex when it is taught in an industrial setting. This paper presents our experiences in the implementation of two different Scrum training workshop for workers. We have evaluated and improved these workshops over the past two years. More than 450 trainees with little or no background on Scrum receive the workshop. Furthermore, we present the implementation of three educational devices that automate activities in the context of this workshop. The automation aims to liberate some operative charge from the trainer to allow them to focus on the learning points and explanations of the activities rather than keeping track of the results of the participants.

Tipo de publicación: Conference Paper

Publicado en: Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient ‪Intelligence UCAmI 2019‬

Scheduling of events through notifications in mobile devices

Descripción:

It is very common to interact with notifications every day with our mobile devices. Notifications have advantages and disadvantages. They bring information for the user, but they are also interruptions. In this study, the authors provide a solution for scheduling events through notifications. They created an application using the Google Calendar platform and the Swift programming language to respond to events through notifications. Then, the participants evaluated the application through the usability scale of the system (SUS), and the results were positive. The authors received excellent comments and feedback from the participants in the evaluation.

Tipo de publicación: Conference Paper

Publicado en: 2019 IV Jornadas Costarricenses de Investigación en Computación e Informática (JoCICI)

Evaluating the Nao Robot in the Role of Personal Assistant: The Effect of Gender in Robot Performance Evaluation

Descripción:

By using techniques such as the Wizard of Oz (WoZ) and video capture, this paper evaluated the performance of the Nao Robot in the role of a personal assistant, which was valuated alongside the impact of the assigned gender (male/female) in the perceived performance of the robot assistant. Within a sample size of 39 computer sciences students, this study assessed criteria such as: perceived enjoyment, intention to use, perceived sociability, trust, intelligence, animacy, anthropomorphism, and sympathy, utilizing testing tools such as Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) and Godspeed Questionnaire (GSQ). These methods identified a significant effect of the gender assigned to the robot in variables such as intelligence and sympathy.

Tipo de publicación: Journal Article

Publicado en: Proceedings

Standardized Questionnaires for User Experience Evaluation: A Systematic Literature Review

Descripción:

Standardized questionnaires are one of the methods used to evaluate User Experience (UX). Standardized questionnaires are composed of an invariable group of questions that users answer themselves after using a product or system. They are considered reliable and economical to apply. The standardized questionnaires most recognized for UX evaluation are AttrakDiff, UEQ, and meCUE. Although the structure, format, and content of each of the questionnaires are known in detail, there is no systematic literature review (SLR) that categorizes the uses of these questionnaires in primary studies. This SLR presents the eligibility protocol and the results obtained by reviewing 946 papers from four digital databases, of which 553 primary studies were analyzed in detail. Different characteristics of use were obtained, such as which questionnaire is used more extensively, in which geographical context, and the size of the sample used in each study, among others.

Tipo de publicación: Journal Article

Publicado en: 13th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient ‪Intelligence UCAmI 2019‬

Smart Meeting Room Management System Based on Real-Time Occupancy

Descripción:

This paper proposes the creation of a smart meeting room through the incorporation of a PIR sensor and an AWS IoT button that allows the booking system to reflect a more precise availability of meeting rooms according to the actual occupancy status. The Internet of Things (IoT) devices are controlled using a Wi-Fi module that allows them to connect to the REST web service and to integrate with the open source Meeting Room Booking System (MRBS). In order to evaluate the system a storyboard evaluation was conducted with 47 participants. All participants filled out the User Experience Questionnaires (UEQ), described the product using three words and expressed their opinion through open comments. Finally, 19 participants took part in a real-life simulation of the smart meeting room and evaluated the system using the UEQ questionnaire. Based on the positive acceptance reflected in the evaluations, results show that the proposed system is considered very attractive and useful by the participants.

Tipo de publicación: Conference Paper

Publicado en: 2019 IV Jornadas Costarricenses de Investigación en Computación e Informática (JoCICI)

User Experience Comparison of Intelligent Personal Assistants: Alexa, Google Assistant, Siri and Cortana

Descripción:

Natural user interfaces are becoming popular. One of the most common natural user interfaces nowadays are voice activated interfaces, particularly smart personal assistants such as Google Assistant, Alexa, Cortana, and Siri. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of these four smart personal assistants in two dimensions: the correctness of their answers and how natural the responses feel to users. Ninety-two participants conducted the evaluation. Results show that Alexa and Google Assistant are significantly better than Siri and Cortana. However, there is no statistically significant difference between Alexa and Google Assistant.

Tipo de publicación: Journal Article

Publicado en: 13th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient ‪Intelligence UCAmI 2019‬

UX Evaluation with Standardized Questionnaires in Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence: A Systematic Literature Review

Descripción:

Standardized questionnaires are well-known, reliable, and inexpensive instruments to evaluate user experience (UX). Although the structure, content, and application procedure of the three most recognized questionnaires (AttrakDiff, UEQ, and meCUE) are known, there is no systematic literature review (SLR) that classifies how these questionnaires have been used in primary studies reported academically. This SLR seeks to answer five research questions (RQs), starting with identifying the uses of each questionnaire over the years and by geographic region (RQ1) and the median number of participants per study (how many participants is considered enough when evaluating UX?) (RQ2). This work also aims to establish whether these questionnaires are combined with other evaluation instruments and with which complementary instruments are they used more frequently (RQ3). In addition, this review intends to determine how the three questionnaires have been applied in the fields of ubiquitous computing and ambient intelligence (RQ4) and also in studies that incorporate nontraditional interfaces, such as haptic, gesture, or speech interfaces, to name a few (RQ5). Methods. A systematic literature review was conducted starting from 946 studies retrieved from four digital databases. The main inclusion criteria being the study describes a primary study reported academically, where the standardized questionnaire is used as a UX evaluation instrument in its original and complete form. In the first phase, 189 studies were discarded by screening the title, abstract, and keyword list. In the second phase, 757 studies were full-text reviewed, and 209 were discarded due to the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The 548 resulting studies were analyzed in detail. Results. AttrakDiff is the questionnaire that counts the most uses since 2006, when the first studies appeared. However, since 2017, UEQ has far surpassed AttrakDiff in uses per year. The contribution of meCUE is still minimal. Europe is the region with the most extended use, followed by Asia. Within Europe, Germany greatly exceeds the rest of countries (RQ1). The median number of participants per study is 20, considering the aggregated data from the three questionnaires. However, this median rises to 30 participants in journal studies while it stays in 20 in conference studies (RQ2). Almost 4 in 10 studies apply the questionnaire as the only evaluation instrument. The remaining studies used between one and five complementary instruments, among which the System Usability Scale (SUS) stands out (RQ3). About 1 in 4 studies analyzed belong to ubiquitous computing and ambient intelligence fields, in which UEQ increases the percentage of uses when compared to its general percentage, particularly in topics such as IoT and wearable interfaces. However, AttrakDiff remains the predominant questionnaire for studies in smart cities and homes and in-vehicle information systems (RQ4). Around 1 in 3 studies include nontraditional interfaces, being virtual reality and gesture interfaces the most numerous. Percentages of UEQ and meCUE uses in these studies are higher than their respective global percentages, particularly in studies using virtual reality and eye tracking interfaces. AttrakDiff maintains its overall percentage in studies with tangible and gesture interfaces and exceeds it in studies with nontraditional visual interfaces, such as displays in windshields or motorcycle helmets (RQ5).

Tipo de publicación: Journal Article

Publicado en: Advances in Human-Computer Interaction

A Mobile Application for Improving the Delivery Process of Notifications

Descripción:

t present, there are systems in charge of classifying and sending notifications to smart devices at different times. However, there are not many studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of these systems in real world settings. We propose a method that classifies and prioritizes notifications by analyzing only the content of the notification and the sender of the message. We also developed a system implementing this method. User diaries were used to analyze the behavior of the system in real world situations, and the results showed that the implemented system significantly reduces interruptions to users. Additionally, the user experience of the system was evaluated through the standardized questionnaire UEQ (User Experience Questionnaire). The results obtained were positive in most of the scales of this instrument, above the average according to UEQ benchmarks. However, aspects such as stimulation and creativity can be improved in the future to motivate users to use the system.

Tipo de publicación: Book Chapter

Publicado en: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing

Technical Debt is Not Only about Code and We Need to Be Aware about It

Descripción:

Context: It is common for a software project to incur technical debt (TD) during its development. It can impact several artifacts produced throughout the software development process. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out management actions to find a balance between the benefits of incurring it and the effects of its presence. However, so far, much of the attention has been given only to discussions relating TD to coding issues. This is a worrying scenario because other types of debt can also have impactful, or even worse, consequences on projects. Aims: This study elaborates on the need to consider other issues of the development process and not just the source-code when investigating the TD phenomenon. Method: We analyze responses from 653 practitioners concerning TD causes, effects, prevention, reasons for non-prevention, repayment, and reasons for non-repayment and investigate whether these TD management elements are related to coding or to other software development issues. Results: Coding issues are commonly related to the investigated elements but, indeed, they are only part of the big picture we draw. Issues related to the project planning and management, human factors, knowledge, quality, process, requirements, verification, validation, and test, design, architecture, TD management, and the organization are also common. Lastly, we present a hump diagram that, in combination with the detailed results, provides guidance on what to expect from the presence of TD and how to react to it considering several issues of software development. Conclusion: The results shed light on other concerns beyond code that the research community and practitioners need to be aware of.

Tipo de publicación: Conference Paper

Publicado en: XX Brazilian Symposium on Software Quality

Technical and Nontechnical Prioritization Schema for Technical Debt: Voice of TD-Experienced Practitioners

Descripción:

Technical debt (TD) can be injected at any stage of software development, spreading across other phases and causing various problems. This article presents a model for conceptualizing TD causes, effects, payment practices, and reasons for payment avoidance, with a prioritization schema for technical and nontechnical roles.

Tipo de publicación: Journal Article

Publicado en: IEEE Software

Pitfalls and Solutions for Technical Debt Management in Agile Software Projects

Descripción:

This article presents technical debt (TD) impediments, decision factors, enabling practices, and actions diagrams for TD management in agile software projects. By analyzing diagrams, professionals can avoid the pitfalls, and increase their capacity, for better TD management.

Tipo de publicación: Journal Article

Publicado en: IEEE Software

What Makes Agile Software Development Agile

Descripción:

Together with many success stories, promises such as the increase in production speed and the improvement in stakeholders' collaboration have contributed to making agile a transformation in the software industry in which many companies want to take part. However, driven either by a natural and expected evolution or by contextual factors that challenge the adoption of agile methods as prescribed by their creator(s), software processes in practice mutate into hybrids over time. Are these still agile In this article, we investigate the question: what makes a software development method agile We present an empirical study grounded in a large-scale international survey that aims to identify software development methods and practices that improve or tame agility. Based on 556 data points, we analyze the perceived degree of agility in the implementation of standard project disciplines and its relation to used development methods and practices. Our findings suggest that only a small number of participants operate their projects in a purely traditional or agile manner (under 15%). That said, most project disciplines and most practices show a clear trend towards increasing degrees of agility. Compared to the methods used to develop software, the selection of practices has a stronger effect on the degree of agility of a given discipline. Finally, there are no methods or practices that explicitly guarantee or prevent agility. We conclude that agility cannot be defined solely at the process level. Additional factors need to be taken into account when trying to implement or improve agility in a software company. Finally, we discuss the field of software process-related research in the light of our findings and present a roadmap for future research.

Tipo de publicación: Journal Article

Publicado en: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering

Common Causes and Effects of Technical Debt in Costa Rica: InsighTD Survey Replication

Descripción:

Technical debt is a concept used to describe technical decisions that can benefit companies in the short term but can produce costs and software quality issues in the long term. Technical debt management can help enterprise profitability, sustainability, and the software industry's credibility. This paper presents a replication of the InsighTD survey (a globally distributed family of industrial surveys on causes and effects of TD), focusing on Costa Rica and comparing other regional countries. In total, 145 practitioners from the Costa Rican IT industry participated. Results show that the leading cause of technical debt is not technical (not only in Costa Rica but also in the region). On the other hand, the main effects reported are delivery delay and general dissatisfaction of the parties involved. A comparative study of InsighTD survey results in various countries is also included.

Tipo de publicación: Conference Paper

Publicado en: 2021 XLVII Latin American Computing Conference (CLEI)

How Experience Impacts Practitioners' Perception of Causes and Effects of Technical Debt

Descripción:

Context: The technical debt (TD) metaphor helps to conceptualize the pending issues and trade-offs made during software development. Knowing TD causes can support in defining preventive actions and having information about effects aids in the prioritization of TD payment. Goal: To investigate the impact of the experience level on how practitioners perceive the most likely causes that lead to TD and the effects of TD that have the highest impacts on software projects. Method: We approach this topic by surveying 227 practitioners. Results: While experienced software developers focus on human factors as TD causes and external quality attributes as TD effects, low experienced developers seem to concentrate on technical issues as causes and internal quality issues and increased project effort as effects. Missing any of these types of causes could lead a team to miss the identification of important TD, or miss opportunities to preempt TD. On the other hand, missing important effects could hamper effective planning or erode the effectiveness of decisions about prioritizing TD items. Conclusion: Having software development teams composed of practitioners with a homogeneous experience level can erode the team's ability to effectively manage TD.

Tipo de publicación: Conference Paper

Publicado en: 2021 IEEE/ACM 13th International Workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering (CHASE)

Prevalence, common causes and effects of technical debt: Results from a family of surveys with the IT industry

Descripción:

Context: The technical debt (TD) metaphor describes actions made during various stages of software development that lead to a more costly future regarding system maintenance and evolution. According to recent studies, on average 25% of development effort is spent, i.e. wasted, on TD caused issues in software development organizations. However, further research is needed to investigate the relations between various software development activities and TD. Objective: The objective of this study is twofold. First, to get empirical insight on the understanding and the use of the TD concept in the IT industry. Second, to contribute towards precise conceptualization of the TD concept through analysis of causes and effects. Method: In order to address the research objective a family of surveys was designed as a part of an international initiative that congregates researchers from 12 countries—InsighTD. At country level, national teams ran survey replications with industry practitioners from the respective countries. Results: In total 653 valid responses were collected from 6 countries. Regarding the prevalence of the TD concept 22% of practitioners have only theoretical knowledge about it, and 47% have some practical experiences with TD identification or management. Further analysis indicated that senior practitioners who work in larger organizations, larger teams, and on larger systems are more likely to be experienced with TD management. Time pressure or deadlinewas the single most cited cause of TD. Regarding the effects of TD: delivery delay, low maintainability, and rework were the most cited. Conclusion: InsighTD is the first family of surveys on technical debt in software engineering. It provided a methodological framework that allowed multiple replication teams to conduct research activities and to contribute to a single dataset. Future work will focus on more specific aspects of TD management.

Tipo de publicación: Journal Article

Publicado en: Journal of Systems and Software

User Experience in Communication and Collaboration Platforms: A Comparative Study Including Discord, Microsoft Teams, and Zoom

Descripción:

Due to the measures imposed to prevent the spread of the virus during the COVID-19 pandemic, how education and work communications are carried have changed. An increase in video conferencing and meeting applications is noticeable. In this research paper, we describe the results of a user experience evaluation of three widely used platforms: Discord, Microsoft Teams, and Zoom. Through the User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ) application, it was determined that Discord is better in aspects not related to tasks and provides an above-average UX. On the other hand, zoom excels when it comes to tasks, but in conjunction with Microsoft Teams, it delivers below-average UX.

Tipo de publicación: Book Chapter

Publicado en: Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems

A conceptual framework for smart device-based notifications

Descripción:

The amount of information available for a person at a given time is growing at a disproportioned rate. Moreover, smart devices are becoming more and more popular. To avoid that human’s attention becomes a bottleneck and improve the number of notifications delivered to users, we believe that smart devices could serve as notifications mechanisms. This paper summarizes and concludes the efforts of a research project focusing on the use of smart devices as notification mechanisms. The goal of the framework is to assist researchers and developers in the conceptualization of smart device-based notifications. Furthermore, this paper presents the results of three evaluations. First, it describes the results of a survey on the need for novel notification mechanisms and the utility of smart devices as notification delivery mechanisms. Second, the results of a quantitative assessment on the impact of notifications delivered through smart devices compared with notifications delivered through smartphones. Results show that smart devices are useful to deliver valuable information and the quantitative assessment discovered that there is no significant difference between smart devices and smartphones delivering notifications. Finally, the applicability of the framework was evaluated and considered useful by software developers.

Tipo de publicación: Journal Article

Publicado en: Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing

Conversational Design Patterns for a UX Evaluation Instrument Implemented by Voice

Descripción:

In recent years there has been an increase of voice interfaces, driven by developments in Artificial Intelligence and the expansion of commercial devices that use them, such as smart assistants present on phones or smart speakers. One field that could take advantage of the potential of voice interaction is in the self-administered surveys data collection, such as standardized UX evaluation questionnaires. This work proposes a set of conversational design patterns for standardized UX evaluation questionnaires that use semantic difference scales as a means of collecting quantitative information on user experience, as is the case of AttrakDiff and UEQ (User Experience Questionnaire). The presented design patterns seek to establish a natural conversation created in accordance with the user, the conservation of context between subsequent questions, the minimization of statements and with statement repair mechanisms not completely understood by the user or voice agent, as eliciting explanation of a concept or repetition.

Tipo de publicación: Book Chapter

Publicado en: Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems

Comparing Written and Voice Captured Responses of the User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ)

Descripción:

Standardized questionnaires are widely used instruments to evaluate UX and their capture mechanism has been implemented in written form, either on paper or in digital format. This study aims to determine if the UX evaluations obtained in the standardized UEQ questionnaire (User Experience Questionnaire) are equivalent if the response capture mechanism is implemented using the traditional written form (digitally) or if a conversational voice interface is used. Having a UX evaluation questionnaire whose capture mechanism is implemented by voice could provide an alternative to collect user responses, preserving the advantages present in standardized questionnaires (quantitative results, statistically validated, self-reported by users) and adding the ease of use and growing adoption of conversational voice interfaces. The results of the case study described in this paper show that, with an adequate number of participants, there are no significant differences in the results of the six scales that make up UEQ when using either of the two response capture mechanisms.

Tipo de publicación: Book Chapter

Publicado en: Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems